iKSP Journal of Business and Economics https://iksp.org/journals/index.php/ijbe <p><em>iKSP Journal of Business and </em><em>Economics (iJBE)</em> is a blind peer review journal published by <em>iKSP</em> publisher. <em>iJBE</em> is an openly accessible journal published twice a year, and it focuses on theories, methods and applications in Business and Economics. It is to provide a platform for researchers and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of Business &amp; Economics.</p> <p>Our peer-review is very fast, highly rigorous and authors are carried along adequately in all the publication processes. We inform author(s) abut the decision on their manuscript(s) within <strong>2-3 WEEKS</strong> of submission. Following acceptance, paper(s) will be immediately available online after necessary format.</p> <p>ISSN (Online): 2701-7060<br />ISSN (Print): 2701-7184</p> en-US editor.ijbe@iksp.org (Editor in Chief) info@iksp.org (iKSP Support Team) Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Relationship between Physical Exercise and Job Performance among Office Workers https://iksp.org/journals/index.php/ijbe/article/view/76 <p>The objective is to study an individual’s job performance and determine its relationship with physical exercise; among office workers in the region of Lahore, Punjab. This is a cross-sectional study. The setting selected to carry out this research were educational institutes i.e. University of Lahore and Imperial University as well as pharmaceutical industries i.e. HiMedic Pharmaceuticals. This research was carried out during a time period of 6 months. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of 130 office workers of the region of Lahore, Punjab in Pakistan. A sample population was selected by the means of convenient sampling. Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to assess workers’ physical exercise and a self-evaluation of work performance was measured by the Health Performance Questionnaire (HPQ). The setting-p-p selected to carry out this research were educational institutes i.e. University of Lahore and Imperial University as well as pharmaceutical industries i.e. HiMedic Pharmaceuticals. Using the Pearson’s Correlation test on SPSS a relationship between employee’s physical exercise and job performance were statistically measured. A mean age of the population was 31.82±11.08. As a result of the data collected and statistical analysis it was revealed that there was no correlation between an office worker’s physical exercise on their job performance as the value of p is .299 and the correlation value was near zero r=.092. There were some percent of respondents (36.2%) who had a fairly low job performance but it wasn’t due to the lack of an exercise regime. In conclusion of this report, it is observed and proved through data collection and statistical analysis that there was no relationship, whatsoever, between physical exercise and job performance; as measured through valid and reliable tools.</p> Nida Iqbal, Ashfaq Ahmad, Syed Amir Gillani Copyright (c) 2021 iKSP Journal of Business and Economics https://iksp.org/journals/index.php/ijbe/article/view/76 Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Determinant of Working Capital Management. An Empirical Investigation from the Pakistan Sugar Industry https://iksp.org/journals/index.php/ijbe/article/view/109 <p>Working capital management is considered one of the main financial streams of financial literacy. This paper examines the factors. That could define the fluctuation in working capital investment level. Mainly this research focuses on the firm-specific and macroeconomic determinants of working capital in the context of the Pakistan sugar industry. This study used a panel data set of 22 listed sugar firms from the Pakistan stock exchange for a duration of 6 years from 2013 to 2018. Cash conversion cycle (CCC) and working Capital ratio act as WCM proxy. The factors, firm value, growth opportunity, financial stability, and firm size as a firm-specific determinant and real GDP used as a macroeconomic determinant of working capital. For analysis, Panel least square with random effect used for regression analysis. The finding shows that firms size, firm value, growth opportunity, real GDP significantly correlated with the duration length period of the Cash conversion cycle. The finding also suggests that firm leverage, firm value, and growth opportunities significantly impact WCR. The implications are proposed for the industry and directions are provided for the policymakers.</p> Abdul Wahab, Sadaf Khan Copyright (c) 2021 iKSP Journal of Business and Economics https://iksp.org/journals/index.php/ijbe/article/view/109 Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Brand Consumer Relationship Quality as a Predictor of Brand Loyalty: Evidence From Smart Phone Users of Pakistan https://iksp.org/journals/index.php/ijbe/article/view/126 <p><strong>-</strong> Brand loyalty has become a pivotal factor for strategic marketing management and is a source of competitive edge. Traditional marketing mix approach has become outdated and nowadays focus is being given on relational marketing. This study intends to test impact of brand consumer relationship quality, WOM and brand trust on brand loyalty. Data has been collected from smart phone users of Pakistan through a survey-based approach. A total of 339 participated responded to the survey who were approached through convenience sampling technique. Data is analyzed through multiple regression method. Results found positive impact of brand-consumer relationship quality brand relationship quality and word of mouth on brand loyalty. Relationship between brand trust and brand loyalty was significantly related. This study contributes towards relationship marketing literature by analyzing smartphone user’s data from an emerging economy</p> Kiran Memon, Sadaf Khan Copyright (c) 2021 iKSP Journal of Business and Economics https://iksp.org/journals/index.php/ijbe/article/view/126 Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Quality Management Systems on Business Performance and Growth https://iksp.org/journals/index.php/ijbe/article/view/157 <p>Quality management is an organization-wide concept that ensures that quality is achieved within and outside the organization. Information quality products and service quality are among the most important aspects of quality management that are enhanced by the Quality Management System (QMS). This research aimed to evaluate the effect of the application of the Quality Management System (QMS) on business performance and growth through the mediating effect which is the Information Quality (IQ) and evaluating the effect of Customers Relationships (CR) on business performance and growth. The research adopted causation research where quantitative research was employed. Data were collected by using a stratified sampling technique from a total of 251 respondents by using a structured questionnaire. Regression analysis was applied for hypotheses testing. The results and findings demonstrated that the first hypothesis was that Quality Management System is proved to be a strong predictor of business performance and growth in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The result for the second hypothesis was also found to be significant which reveals that customer relationships are a significant predictor of business performance and growth in the Kingdom of Bahrain. And the result of the third hypothesis showed the significant mediating effect of information quality on the relationship between Quality Management System and business performance and growth. This research paper recommends for the aviation industry to focus and implement the Quality Management System and get ISO certification to enhance the business performance and growth.</p> Alhamlan Sabika Jasim Saqer Jasim Copyright (c) 2021 iKSP Journal of Business and Economics https://iksp.org/journals/index.php/ijbe/article/view/157 Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Moderating Effect of Brand Attributes between Brand Identity and Consumer Behavior for an Apparel Industry https://iksp.org/journals/index.php/ijbe/article/view/159 <p>Brand Identity plays a significant role in developing a brand and establishing its consumer market. Brand Identity/Image is developed by different Brand Attributes that make the Brand stand apart from others in the competitive markets of today. The research aimed to explore the moderating role of Brand Attributes in developing a string Brand Identity and significantly affecting the Consumer Behavior in the Apparel Industry. 5 Brand Attributes were explored and selected including Awareness, Value, Trust, Quality and Pricing. The study adopted the quantitative method of research where a survey based questionnaire was distributed among 400 apparel industry consumers via Google Survey after validation of the research instrument. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed using different statistical test to summarize the findings from the data. The data revealed that Brand Identity was significantly and highly moderated by Brand Attributes and their impact over the Consumer Behavior was significant as well. The results showed that Brand Quality was the most significant attribute in purchase and repurchase decisions of customers, however, Quality, Trust and Pricing were also found to be highly significant in developing strong Brand Identity. The study concluded that Brand Attributes play a significant role in moderating Brand Identity and thus directly affecting the Consumer Behavior.</p> Darwish Usman, Surjit Victor Copyright (c) 2021 iKSP Journal of Business and Economics https://iksp.org/journals/index.php/ijbe/article/view/159 Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 WhatsApp Stories Feature in the Lens of Cyberbullying: A Case of Metropolitan City Karachi https://iksp.org/journals/index.php/ijbe/article/view/152 <p>WhatsApp is a prevalent social interacting medium which is globally used by more than 2 billion people in which the WhatsApp Stories Feature in 2019 is used by half a billion users. WhatsApp Stories is a premise for sharing desired content like photos, videos, text, and is also a free place to post opinions and to express feelings. This research paper is exploratory in nature. The objective of this study was to analyze the usage of WhatsApp stories for cyberbullying and to find out the actual perpetrators and victims of cyberbullying by focusing Gender. The primary data was gathered through a self-administered questionnaire which contains a 5 scaling Likert scale. The sample size was 146 in which (32.9%) were Male and (67.1%) were Females. The data was taken from the region of Karachi. Quantitative analysis methodology is used, and the sample data is analyzed through SPSS software. Correlation, Regression &amp; One Sample t-test was tested among the variables along with mean differences and found significant results where P-Value outcome for each variable was P&lt;0.05. The study adds a substantial contribution to the literature and conveys a new direction for future studies.</p> Rabiya Inayatulah, Sadaf Khan Copyright (c) 2021 iKSP Journal of Business and Economics https://iksp.org/journals/index.php/ijbe/article/view/152 Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000