iKSP Journal of Business and Economics 2021-02-12T08:51:24+00:00 Editor in Chief Open Journal Systems <p><em>iKSP Journal of Business and </em><em>Economics (iJBE)</em> is a blind peer review journal published by <em>iKSP</em> publisher. <em>iJBE</em> is an openly accessible journal published twice a year, and it focuses on theories, methods and applications in Business and Economics. It is to provide a platform for researchers and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of Business &amp; Economics.</p> <p>Our peer-review is very fast, highly rigorous and authors are carried along adequately in all the publication processes. We inform authors of the decision on their manuscript(s) within <strong>TWO WEEKS</strong> of submission. Following acceptance, a paper will normally be published in the coming issue.</p> <p>ISSN (Online): 2701-7060<br />ISSN (Print): 2701-7184</p> Cost-Effectiveness and Organizational Performance Impact of Management Information System in Albader Tower Contracting in the Kingdom of Bahrain 2020-08-27T23:08:00+00:00 Ameera Yusuf Al Khuzaei <p>Albader Tower Contracting is a contracting company that provides services like renewable energy and deals with building and construction projects like civil, electrical, plumping, and mechanical projects to its clients in the Kingdom of Bahrain. It has sought the significance of improving its resources and has done developments and improvements in its administrative and operational processes to lever its organizational performance and benefits. It has planned and initially employed innovative technologies to effectively and efficiently deal with these developments and continuously seek to improve its organizational growth by increasing its investment to this technology. Hence, this research aimed at identifying, analyzing, and evaluating the cost effectiveness of the employed trigger in its developments and improvements – the Management Information System. Further, this study aimed at analyzing and evaluating the organizational performance impact of information system towards expected organizational benefits for Albader Tower Contracting. The collected data were organized, analyzed, compared, and interpreted by using the statistical tools mean, standard deviation, and variance. The identified indicators that were carefully identified, selected, and validated as organizational performance impact variables were categorized into organizational, technological, and people characteristics and further grouped into two main factors perceived usefulness and user satisfaction and statistically derived means, standard deviation and variance were analyzed, compared, and interpreted into the levels of impact. Moreover, to validate data, the researcher used Sampling Validity, Criterion Validity. Penultimately, the derived value of MIS determined by the cost-effectiveness analysis using the method Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER), and the determined levels of organizational performance impact of MIS were used to finally determine the organizational benefits. Finally, findings, conclusion, and recommendations were drawn out from the outcomes gotten from the tools used in this study to answer the formulated research questions.</p> 2021-02-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 iKSP Journal of Business and Economics The Effects of SMEs, Population and Education level on Unemployment in Kingdom of Bahrain 2020-08-29T17:32:13+00:00 Ahmed Manaa Muhammad Abrar ul Haq <p>Since the begging of the modern age unemployment was always considered a problem of any economy on the globe. Countries and governments around the world were always looking for ways to reduce the unemployment rate but the issue is a complex one with many affecting variables. Job creation was and is not precisely the problem as its happening all the time, rather the rate of creations versus the population and the education level that is appropriate for fresh graduates to enter the labour market. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the effects of SMEs growth, population growth and education level on the unemployment rate in Bahrain. This study used secondary data that was collected over a span of 21 years from many sources like the Ministries of Bahrain and the World Bank data bank. The dependent variable in this study was the unemployment rate and independent variables were SMEs growth, Population growth and education level. The study applied the ADF unit root test for stationary analysis on the variables to determine the right statistical model to use for this study. Result of ADF unit root indicates that some variable was stationary at the level and some were stationary at first difference, thus ARDL model used for further hypotheses analysis. The findings of ARDL show that the two of the variables had a positive effect and one variable has a negative effect on unemployment rate in Bahrain. Finally, the study recommends the nurture of SMEs by issuing helpful policies and creating financial aid programs for new and old SMEs because of how big any effect SMEs can have on lowering the unemployment rate, on the other hand, the creation of training programs to help fresh graduates adapt to the new mentality of the workplace and give them enough experience to be acceptable candidates. </p> 2021-02-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 iKSP Journal of Business and Economics Demographic Characteristics as Antecedents for Propensity to Stay among Employees of Rosemarry Contracting Company in the Kingdom of Bahrain 2020-09-07T09:26:34+00:00 Manar Mohammed Radhi Mark P. Doblas <p>This study aimed to investigate if socio-demographic profile can significantly predict employee’s intention to stay in Rosemarry Contracting Company in the Kingdom of Bahrain. While several factors have been associated to employee retention, very little attention is channelled to the investigation on the role of socio-demographic characteristics to employee retention. This made the researcher decide to explore the construct under consideration. The research utilized a descriptive research design involving 162 randomly selected respondents were included in the study. An adopted questionnaire was utilized as data gathering tool. The results of the study found that among all socio-demographic profile tested, only Age, Education, years of service, income were found significant in predicting propensity to stay. Gender, Marital Statues were not found to be statistically significant antecedents of propensity to stay.</p> 2021-02-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 iKSP Journal of Business and Economics Global Regulators Assessments on Operational Risk Management, International Fines and Sanctions Violations 2020-12-21T09:41:31+00:00 NIZAM SHAH ALLABASC <p>This study proposes to examine and review the responses from international regulators in relation to operational risk management. This review also seeks to measure the effect management support has in influencing and improving these four outcomes, namely; the safety of assets and infrastructure, customer satisfaction, cost reduction and employee performance. Further, it examines the record-breaking fines imposed on banking and financial institutions by global regulators, especially with regard to cases of fines for Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and sanctions violations, and considers recent operational risk loss events that have occurred on a global scale. In addition, certain issues identified in this study were valid enough to disclose a major moral hazard risk and operational risk implication to global banking and financial institutions. The results obtained from this study are pertinent owing to the operational loss and the reputational risks faced by nations in general and financial institutions in particular.</p> 2021-02-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 iKSP Journal of Business and Economics Impact of Social Media Marketing on Building Brand Equity: An Emperical Study of Pakistan Apparel Brand 2020-12-21T09:46:15+00:00 Rukhsar M Iqbal Sadaf Khan <p>Social media marketing has reached its eminent place worldwide. The purpose of this study is examined the social media marketing activities and its impact on brand equity. The relationship between social media marketing and brand equity in apparel brands is established. The study focused on the social media marketing usage by the textile industries as a tool for their marketing activities. A sample of the study totaling 250 customers was chosen using an administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and parametric tests were run using SPSS version20. Findings confirmed that social media marketing, content strategy, interaction, advertisement, reliability and brand equity are highly positive related. Findings suggested a new direction in the context of Pakistan sample.</p> 2021-02-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 iKSP Journal of Business and Economics International Moral Hazard Risks Management in Monetary Institutions 2020-12-29T20:53:12+00:00 NIZAM SHAH ALLABASC <p>This study examines moral hazard risk and its impacts on the global monetary industry. While most risks can be attributable to natural causes, moral hazard risks are mainly due to failure of human value systems. The fines which have been imposed on financial institutions have been highlighted by regions, for ease of reference. Measures such as standard operating procedures, robust systems and competent staff together with anti-money laundering (AML) and know your customer (KYC) policies can help control and can prevent, or at least minimise, sanctions and fines. In the case of money laundering, consequences can be severe as it not only destroys local economies but also affects the host economies¬ by financing illegal and terrorism related activities. To prevent AML activities, regulators need to be more aware and stringent in policy implementation Fines and sanctions imposed on financial institutions and the growing nature of such fines and sanctions indicate the severity of this problem in recent times. One way to prevent and/or to reduce this risk is through moral and religious education coupled with adequate regulatory policies, controls and procedures. The implementation of these regulatory policies have to be then monitored and the necessary actions taken to review and enhance them to manage and mitigate any the risks.</p> 2021-02-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 iKSP Journal of Business and Economics Perception of Male and Female towards Branded Clothing in Pakistan 2020-12-21T09:47:23+00:00 Wajid Hussain Sadaf Khan <p>The focus on the perception of females on branded clothing is gaining the attention. This study looked at the different perspective by targeting the male perspective. The study proposes a framework including social status, family tradition, national heritage, quality, Values as an independent variables and branded clothing as a dependent variable. A survey approach is adopted to collect the data, in total 32 questions were developed, a total sample of 144 male and females from different universities and colleges of the Pakistan have been chosen. A statistical Package SPSS is used to test the hypothetical relationship. Findings suggested that Male perception is equally important when examining the perception towards buying behavior of branded clothing. Recommendations are given to clothing business to focus on the variables that influence customer’s perception and suggestions are given to researchers to work on different branded products.</p> 2021-02-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 iKSP Journal of Business and Economics